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Credits & Sources

Alex Krieger
Pioneer Texas archeologist Alex Krieger studied the Harrell site for his 1946 work, Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas. Photo from TARL Archives.

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Jack Hughes
Hughes, who analyzed the materials from the Harrell site for his Master's thesis in 1942, went on to an illustrious career in archeology, earning the title, "Dean of Panhandle Archeology," in his later years. This photo was taken in the 1980s while Krieger was on a visit to Dee Ann and Hal Story.

The Harrell site exhibit was written by TBH Co-Editors Susan Dial and Steve Black drawing mainly on information compiled on the site by two legends in Texas archeology—Alex Krieger and Jack Hughes—as well as the original WPA field notes and records compiled by George Fox. Meg Kemp developed the exhibit for the web.

Alex D. Krieger was a research scientist in anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin and later went on to become Professor of Anthropology at the University of Washington in Seattle. A monumental force in synthesizing and shaping interpretations of prehistoric cultures in Texas, he authored numerous publications on sites throughout the state as well as his 1946 seminal work, Cultural Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas, in which he defined both the Antelope Creek and Henrietta foci. Later, with Dee Ann Suhm Story and Edward Jelks, he set forth classifications and typologies for projectile points and pottery, many of which are still sound more than 50 years later. Krieger died at the age of 80 in 1991.

Jack T. Hughes also was a pioneer in Texas archeology. His love of exploring nature and archeological discovery was formed early on: he became one of the earliest members of the Texas Archeological Society at the age of 8. The son of a highway engineer who was required to travel frequently, he attended 22 schools throughout East Texas before graduating as valedictorian of his class at the age of 15. Graduating summa cum laude from the University of Texas at Austin with a double major in anthropology and geology, he went on to earn his master's degree at UT (focusing on the Harrell site in his thesis) and doctoral degree from Columbia University. Moving to Canyon, Texas, he taught for many years at West Texas State University and served as curator at the Panhandle-Plains Museum. His work in the region earned him the title, Dean of Panhandle Archeology. He died in May, 2001.

Alex Krieger
A prolific scholar and writer throughout his career, Krieger explored such diverse topics as Early Man in the New World, to East Texas Caddo cultures, to Cabeza de Vaca's route through Texas.
Jack Hughes
Jack Hughes shown reconstructing a pottery vessel in this circa 1940 photograph. Photo from TARL Archives.

Chris Lintz of TRC, Doug Boyd of Prewitt and Associates, LCRA archeologist Dan Prikryl, and TARL director Darrell Creel all contributed valuable insights on the Harrell site. Black and white photos from the 1937-1938 WPA excavations at the site are from the TARL Archives. Color photos of the Harrell site artifacts were taken by Milton Bell.

Print Sources

Many of these publications were printed in limited numbers and may be difficult to find.

Bell, Robert E. and Robert L. Brooks
2001 Plains Village Tradition: Southern. Handbook of North American Indians, Plains, 13:207-221.Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Boyd, Douglas K.
1997 Caprock Canyonlands Archeology: A Synthesis of the Late Prehistory and History of Lake Alan Henry and the Texas Panhandle Plains, Vol. II. Reports of Investigations, No. 110, Prewitt & Associates, Austin.

Brack, Michael L.
1999 Shell Tempered Ceramics of the Late Prehistoric Southern Plains: Toward a Cultural Understanding of Nocona Plain. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Wichita State University.

Drass, Richard R.
1997 Culture Change on the Eastern Margins of the Southern Plains. Oklahoma Anthropological Society Memoir 7 and Studies in Oklahoma's Past 19, Oklahoma Archeological Survey, Norman, OK.

Fox, George
1939 Field data and reports on the Harrell Site (NT-5). Manuscripts on file, TARL Archives.

Hughes, Jack T.
1942 An Archeological Report on the Harrell Site of North-Central Texas. Unpublished M.A. thesis, the University of Texas, Austin.

1968 Prehistory of the Caddoan-Speaking Tribes. Ph.D. Dissertation in Anthropology, Columbia University. (Published in 1974 by Garland, New York).

Keeley, Lawrence
1997 War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Oxford University Press, New York.

Krieger, Alex D.
1946 Culture, Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas: With Extension of Puebloan Datings to the Mississippi Valley. The University of Texas Publication 4640, Austin.

LeBlanc, Steven A.
1999 Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Lorraine, Dessamae
1969 Archaeological Excavations in the Fish Creek Reservoir. Southern Methodist University Contributions in Anthropology 4.

Newcomb, William W. Jr.
2001 Wichita. Handbook of North American Indians, Plains, 13:548-566. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Parks, Douglas R.
2001 Kitsai. Handbook of North American Indians, Plains, 13:567-571.Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Prikryl, Daniel J.
1990 Lower Elm Fork Prehistory: A Redefinition of Cultural Concepts and Chronologies along the Trinity River, North-Central Texas. Office of the State Archeologist, Report 37, Texas Historical Commission, Austin.

Wedel, Waldo R.
1970 Antler Tine Scraper Handles in the Central Plains. Plains Anthropologist 15 (7):36-45.



Handbook of Texas Online article on the M.D. Harrell site.

Overview of the Southern Plains Village complexes of Oklahoma created by Dr. Richard Drass at the University of Oklahoma. Follow the links for information on the Odessa-Yates site, an important Plains Village site in northern Oklahoma.

Website of the Oklahoma Archeological Survey. A good source of information on Plains sites research and annual Plains Archeological Conference.