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Credits & Sources

Fort Clark and the Rio Grande Frontier was written by Steve Dial, contributing editor for Texas Beyond History. For more information on Dial and the TBH Forts Project team, see Frontier Forts Supporters and Contributors.

Print Sources

Austerman, Wayne
1985   Sharps Rifles and Spanish Mules: The San Antonio-El Paso Mail, 1851-1881. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Cusack, Michael F. and Caleb Pirtle III
1985   The Lonely Sentinel. Eakin Press, Austin.

Fehrenbach, T.R.
1968   Lone Star: A History of Texas and the Texans. Collier Books, New York, paperback edition 1980.

Fehrenbach, T.R.
1979   Comanches: The Destruction of a People. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Ford, John Salmon
1963   Rip Ford's Texas, edited by Stephen B. Oates. University of Texas Press, Austin, paperback edition 1987.

Fowler, Arlen L.
1971   The Black Infantry in the West, 1869-1891. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. University of Oklahoma Press paperback edition 1996.

Haenn, William F.
2002   Fort Clark and Bracketville: Land of Heroes. Arcadia Publishing, Chicago.

Jackson, J.
1986   Los Mesteños: Spanish Ranching in Texas 1721-1821. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

James, Vinton Lee
1938   Frontier and Pioneer Recollections of Early Days in San Antonio and West Texas. Artes Graficas, San Antonio.

Lane, Lydia S.
1893   I Married a Soldier. J.P. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.

Leckie, William H.
1967   The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Pierce, Michael D.
1993   The Most Promising Young Officer: A Life of Ranald Slidell Mackenzie. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Smith, Thomas T.
1993   Fort Inge: Sharps, Spurs and Sabers on the Texas Frontier, 1849-1869. Eakin Press, Austin.

1999   The U.S. Army and the Texas Frontier Economy, 1845-1900. Texas A&M
University Press, College Station.

2000   The Old Army in Texas: A Research Guide to the U.S. Army in Nineteenth Century Texas. Texas State Historical Association, Austin.

Utley, Robert
1973   Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian, 1866-1891. Macmillan,
New York. University of Nebraska Press paperback edition, Bison Book printing 1984.

2002   Lone Star Justice. Oxford University Press, New York.

Weber, David J.
1982   The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846: The American Southwest Under Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.


The website of the Fort Clark Historical Society, which maintains a museum on the grounds of Fort Clark Springs resort. Information on fort history and the current resort complex.

For more information on Spanish Colonial ranching in south Texas, see: www.texasbeyondhistory.net/falcon/.

The Handbook of Texas Online has information pertinent to the Rio Grande frontier on the following related topics:

Apache Indians
Cattle Trailing
Beales's Rio Grande Colony
Beales, John Charles
Black Seminole Indians
Black Seminole Scouts
Bliss, Zenas Randall
Brackett, Oscar Bernadotte
Brackettville, Texas
Bullis, John Lapham
Del Rio, Texas
Eagle Pass, Texas
Factor, Pompey
Fort Brown
Fort Clark,
Fort Duncan
Fort Ewell
Fort Inge
Fort McIntosh
Fort Merrill
Fort Ringgold
Kickapoo Indians
Las Moras Springs
Payne, Isaac
Shafter, William Rufus
Sheridan, Philip Henry
Wallace, William Alexander Anderson (Bigfoot)
Ward, John