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Credits and Sources

The Native Peoples of the Trans-Pecos Mountains and Basins was written by Nancy A. Kenmotsu. Portions of this exhibit were adapted from Kenmotsu's 1994 dissertation and the 2001 article listed below. These sources should be consulted for scholarly citations and additional information. TBH editor Steve Black created the exhibit with web development by Heather Smith.

Kenmotsu, former director of Cultural Resource Management at the Texas Department of Transportation, holds an M.A. from the University of Colorado, and Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin, where her doctoral studies focused on the native peoples of the Junta de los Ríos region of west Texas. She currently resides in Washington state, yet continues to conduct ethnohistoric and archeological research in Texas and the Southwest.

Print Sources

Ayer, Mrs. Edward E. (translator)
1965    The Memorial of Fray Alonso de Benavides, 1630. Horn and Wallace, Albuquerque.

Deeds, Susan
2003    Defiance and Deference in Mexico’s Colonial North, Indians under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Flint, Richard and Shirley Cushing Flint
2005    Documents of the Coronado Expedition, 1539-1542: "They were not Familiar with His Majesty, nor Did they Wish to be His Subjects." Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas.

Griffen, William B.
1969    Culture change and shifting populations in central northern Mexico. University of Arizona, Anthropological papers, no. 13, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

1979    Indian assimilation in the Franciscan area of Nueva Vizcaya. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Hackett, Charles W.
1923,1926, 1937    Historical Documents Relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya and Approaches Thereto, to 1773, Collected by Adolph F. A. Bandelier and Fanny R. Bandelier. Papers of the Department of Historical Research, No. 330, Vol. I-III, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington D.C.

1931,1934, 1935, 1936   Picardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas. Vols. 1-4, University of Texas Press, Austin. 

Hadley, Diana, Thomas H. Naylor, and Mardith K. Schuetz-Miller (editors)
1997    The Presidio and Militia on the Northern Frontier of New Spain, A Documentary History. The University of Arizona Press, Tuscon.

Hammond, George P. and Agapito Rey
1953    Don Juan De Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico 1595-1628. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Hammond, George P., and Agapito Rey (translators and editors)
1929    Expedition into New Mexico Made by Antonio de Espejo in 1582–1583, as Revealed in the Journal of Diego Pérez de Luxán, a Member of the Party. Quivira Society Publications 1. Quivira Society, Los Angeles.

1966    The Rediscovery of New Mexico 1580-1594, the Exploration of Chamuscado, Espejo, Castaña de Sos, Morlete, y Leyva de Bonilla y Humaña. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Hickerson, Nancy
1994    The Jumanos: Hunters and Traders of the South Plains. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Imhoff, Brian (Editor)
2002    The Diary of Juan Dominguez de Mendoza’s Expedition into Texas (1683-1684), A Critical Edition of the Spanish Text with Facsimile Reproductions. William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Dallas.

John, Elizabeth A. H.
1991    Spanish-Indian Relations in the Big Bend Region during the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries. The Journal of Big Bend Studies 3:71-80.

John, Elizabeth (editor) and John Wheat (translator)
1989   Views from the Apache Frontier: Report on the Northern Provinces of New Spain by Jose Cortex, Lieutenant in the Royal Corps of Engineers, 1799. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Johnson, Gregory A.
1989    Dynamics of Southwestern Prehistory Far Outside—Looking In. In Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory, edited by Linda S. Cordell and George J. Gumerman, pp. 371-389. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Jones, Oakah L., Jr.
1979    Los Paisanos Spanish Settlers on the Northern Frontier of New Spain.  University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

1988    Nueva Vizcaya: Heartland of the Spanish Frontier. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Kelley, J. Charles
1952    The Historic Indian Pueblos of La Junta de los Rios, Part 1. New Mexico Historical Review 27(4):257–295. download pdf

1953    The Historic Indian Pueblos of La Junta de los Rios, Part 2. New Mexico Historical Review 28(1):21–51.download pdf

1986    Jumano and Patarabueye, Relations at La Junta de los Rios. Anthropological Papers No. 77. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Kenmotsu, Nancy A.
1994    Helping Each Other Out: A Study of the Mutualistic Relations of Small Scale Foragers and Cultivators in La Junta de los Rios Region, Texas and Mexico. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin.

2001    Seeking Friends, Avoiding Enemies: The Jumano Response to Spanish Colonization, A.D. 1580–1750. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 72:23–43. download pdf

Kenmotsu, Nancy A. and Mariah F. Wade
2002    Amistad National Recreation Area, Del Rio, Texas, American Indian Tribal Affiliation Study Phase I: Ethnohistoric Literature Review. National Park Service and Archeological Studies Program, Report No. 34, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin.

Knaut, Andres
1995     The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 Conquest and Resistance in Seventeenth-Century New Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman

Krieger, Alex
2002     We Came Naked and Barefoot: The Journey of Cabeza de Vaca across North America, edited by Margery Krieger. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Madrid, Enrique R. (translator)
1992    Expedition to La Junta de los Ríos, 1747–1748: Captain Commander Joseph de Ydioaga’s Report to the Viceroy of New Spain. Office of the State Archeologist Special Report 33. Texas Historical Commission, Austin.

Miller, Myles R.
2001   Post-Pueblo, Protohistoric, and Early Mission Period Archeology in Western Trans-Pecos Texas and South Central New Mexico, A.D. 1450-1680. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 72:105-163.

Morgenthaler, G. Jefferson
2007    La Junta de los Rios: The Life, Death, and Resurrection of an Ancient Desert Community in the Big Bend Region of Texas. Mockingbird Books, Boerne, Texas.

Sheridan, Thomas and Nancy Parezo
2003    Paths of Life: American Indians of the Southwest and Northern Mexico. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Spielmann, Katherine A.
1991    Farmers, Hunters, and Colonists: Interaction between the Southwest and the Southern Plains. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Tigua Indian Cultural Center
n.d.   The Tiguas: People of the Sun. Tigua Indian Cultural Center, El Paso, Texas.

Wade, Maria F.
2003    The Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau 1582-1799. University of Texas Press. Austin.

Nancy Kenmotsu.