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Credits & Sources

Caddo Voices was researched and written by Cecile Elkins Carter, who also took many of the pictures and gathered most of the archival photographs. An enrolled member of the Caddo Indian Tribe of Oklahoma, she became interested in Caddo history when she was in her 30s. "I read somewhere that we were 'virtually extinct,'" she recalled. "Well, I knew we were not extinct, but if we were once strong and powerful, how did we become weak and pitiful? That's what I wanted to find out." What she found out is the subject of her 1995 book Caddo Indians Where We Come From (University of Oklahoma Press). Carter has also served as the Caddo tribe's cultural liaison, written scholarly articles on the Caddo dance tradition, and given dozens of presentations and story-telling performances to audiences ranging from school children (her favorite) to academic researchers. She continues to document Caddo history through personal interviews, video taping, and archival research.

Selected List of Works Consulted

Battey, Thomas C.
1968 The Life and Adventures of a Quaker Among the Indians. New edition. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press.

[Battey's book, based on diaries he kept, acquaints readers with the personalities and habits of Southern Plains Indians during a dangerous and stressful time in history.]

Bolton, Herbert Eugene
1987 The Hasinais: Southern Caddoans as Seen by the Earliest Europeans. Edited by Russell M. Magnaghi. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Photo of Cecile Elkins Carter Author and historian Cecile Elkins Carter.

Butler, Josiah
1928 Pioneer School Teaching at the Comanche-Kiowa Agency School 1870-3: Being the Reminiscences of the First Teacher. Chronicles of Oklahoma, vol. 6, no. 4. December 1928:483-528.

[Butler and his wife, Elizabeth, both Quaker schoolteachers, were asked to organize the Agency school between Fort Sill and Lawton, Oklahoma. His reminiscences are written in the form of a journal and, though quieter, follow much the same pattern as Tomas Battey's book. ]

Carter, Cecile Elkins
1995 Caddo Indians: Where We Come From. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Paperback 2001.

[Awarded Best Book in Oklahoma History, 1996, Oklahoma Historical Society]

Flores, Dan L., editor
1977 Jefferson and southwestern Exploration: The Freeman and Curtis Accounts of the Red River Expedition of 1806. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

[This is the first book-length treatment of the 1806 exploration of the southern Red River led by Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis. The accounts of surveyor-astronomer Freeman, and of Custis, a naturalist, are fascinating as are the many maps and illustrations plus the "Introduction" and "Epilogue" by Flores.]

Glover, William B.
1932 A History of the Caddo Indians. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, Austin. 18:872-946.

[Available on Louisiana Anthology. http://www2.latech.edu/~Bmagee/louisiana_anthology/texts/glover/glover--caddo_history.html>]

Hardin, J. Fair
1935 An Outline of Shreveport and Caddo Parish History. Louisiana Historical Quarterly 18:795-871.

[Ink on the 1835 Treaty ceding Caddo territory in Louisiana to the United States barely had time to dry before the founders of Shreveport mapped the cities lots. Fair covers the Treaty, its aftermath, and Shreveport families whose histories intertwine with Caddos. Hard to find but worth the effort when you do.]

Hume, C. Ross
Papers. Hume Collection no. 1, University of Oklahoma Library, Western History Archives, Norman.

[C. Ross Hume's father was Government Agency doctor. Ross was about eleven when his family moved to Anadarko in 1890. The Agency settlement that grew to be a town was his home for the rest of his life. He became a lawyer and served as the Caddo tribal attorney for many years.]

Lange, Charles H.
1974 A Report on Data Pertaining to the Caddo Treaty of July 1, 1835: The Historical and Anthropological Aftermath. In Caddoan Indians II, comp. and ed. by David Agee Horr, A Garland Press Series American Indian Ethnohistory, Garland Publishing, New York.

[This is one of four Caddo Indian volumes that were written about two separate claim areas: Louisana-Arkansas and Texas-Oklahoma. Lang was an expert witness for the land claim case advanced by the Caddo Indians against the United States Government (Indian Claims Commission, Docket 226). Hard to find.]

Mississippi Messenger. September 30, 1806, Natchez.

[Governor Claiborne's speech and the reply of the Grand Caddo Dehahuit printed in full in this issue of the newspaper.]

Mooney, James
1896 The Ghost Dance Religion, and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890. 14th Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology. 1892-1893. Part 2. Government Printing Press, Washington D.C.

Neighbours, Kenneth
1973 Indian Exodus: Texas Indian Affairs 1835-1859. Nortex Offset Publications, Inc.

[This small book covers a period of Caddo history neglected by other historians. The data he gathered on the lives of Caddo people and, particularly, their famous leader, Jose Maria or Iesh, is noteworthy. ]

Newkumet, Vynola Beaver and Howard L. Meredith
1988 Hasinai: A Traditional History of the Caddo Confederacy. Forward by Arrell Morgan Gibson. Texas A&M Press, College Station.

[Vynola B. Newkumet was Caddo. The co-author, Howard L. Meredith was professor of American Indian Studies at the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma. Traditional Caddo Dances are given meaningful interpretations as they relate to Caddo history.]

Parsons, Elsie Clews.
1941 Notes on the Caddo. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association.
Supplement to American Anthropologist, vol. 43, pt. 2, no. 57.

[Parsons first gathered data for this wonderful work in 1921-22 with the cooperation of Michael Martin, Caddo artist who used the name Silver Moon. Martin was in New York City at the time. In 1925, Parsons checked up on Martin's data and interviewed three more Caddos. Very rare, but now available online: http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/caddo/ind]

Sibley, John.
1922 A Report from Natchitoches in 1807. Edited by Anne Heloise Abel, Indian Notes and Monographs, Museum of the American Indian and Heye Foundation.

[Sibley was the first American Indian Agent for the Caddo. He admired and spent much time talking with the great Caddo Caddi, Dehahuit. Some of these conversations are recorded in his Report from Natchitoches.]

Smith, F. Todd
1995 The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542-1854. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

1996 The Caddos, the Wichitas, and the United States 1846-1901. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

[These two books reflect Smith's deep research. Together they present a comprehensive history of the Caddo and their adaptation to new political, economic, and social environments.]

Swanton, John R.
1996 Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians. New Edition. Forward by Helen Hornbeck Tanner, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

[This remains the standard source for solid information about the Caddo.]

Tanner, Helen Hornbeck.
1974 The Territory of the Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma, Caddoan Indians 4, compiled and edited by David Agee Horr, A Garland Press Series American Indian Ethnohistory, Garland Publishing, New York.

[This fourth volume in the Garland Press Series contains the report prepared for the Indian Claims Commission in support of the Caddo claim to aboriginal territory.]

United States House Reports
1842 No. 1035, The Caddo Indian Treaty, 27th Congress, 2nd Session, House of Representatives, 1-129.

Webb, Clarence, and Hiram Gregory
1978 The Caddo Indians in Louisiana. Edited by Alan Troth. Louisiana Archeological Survey and Antiquities Commission, Anthropological Studies no. 2, Baton Rouge.

Webb, Walter Prescott
1935 The Texas Rangers: A century of Frontier Defense. Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass.

[This history of the Texas Rangers includes both official historical fact obtained from official records and accounts told by veteran Rangers.]

Winfrey, Dorman H. and James M. Day, eds.
1966 The Indian Papers of Texas and the Southwest 1825-1916. Vols. 1-4. Pemberton Press, Austin.

[Volumes contain documents from almost all governmental departments that dealt with Indian affairs.]

Yoakum, H.
1935 History of Texas from Its First Settlement in 1685 to Its Annexation to the United States in 1846. Facsimile reproduction of 1855 original. Vol. 2. The Steck Company, Austin.

[Documented by official government papers and written while events were fresh in the minds of people who participated in them.]

Caddo quotes were compiled from:
Doris Duke Oral Indian History Collection. Western History Collection. University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Indian-Pioneer Histories, Oklahoma Historical Society Archives, Oklahoma City.

Hume Collection. Western History Collection. University of Oklahoma, Norman.
Transcript of statements transcribed from tape recorded interviews conducted by Jay H. Hoag, attorney, on September 28-29, 1968 in Anadarko, Oklahoma.

Caddo Oral Histories and personal communications. Cecile Carter personal collection.


Kiwat Hasinai is a non-profit foundation dedicated to the preservation of Caddo language. Nusht'uhti?ti? Hasinay: Caddo Language Phrase Book is available through this foundation. The phrase book is packaged with double CD's recorded by Randlett Edmonds, a fluent speaker and teacher of the Caddo language. Also available through Various Indian Peoples Publishing Co. www.native-languages.org.

Caddo music recorded by Caddo Culture Club drummer-singers are available. Write Caddo Cultural Club, P.O. Box 211, Binger, Oklahoma 73009.

Songs of the Caddo: Ceremonial and Social Dance Music, long out of print is available on CD from Canyon Records, 3131 W. Clarendon Ave., Phoenix, Arizona 85017.

Ferry Lake entry, The Handbook of Texas Online. https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook