The Sulphur River and Cypress Creek drainages

Partially cleared upland ridge protruding into the floodplain of Big Cypress Creek drainage, Benson's Crossing, Titus County, Texas. TARL archives.

The Sulphur River and Cypress Creek, both Red River tributaries, were home to major Caddo settlements throughout Caddo history. While both drainages are small in comparison to the Red River, extensive (if often narrow) floodplains and bottomlands occur along their main courses as well as their many branches and smaller tributaries creating varied habitats useful to the Caddo. Upland springs are common, especially within the Cypress Creek watershed, a factor that helps explain the presence of a number of large Caddo settlements in uplands settings in this area. The lower parts of both drainage systems are in the piney woods, while the middle sections are in the oak woodlands; the upper portions extend into the Blackland Prairie.

Bottomland, Big Cypress Creek, Titus County, Texas. TARL Archives.
Flooded bottomland along Sulphur River, Morris County, Texas. Visible in this picture is an inundated modern deer-hunter's camp. The bottomland camps and farms of the ancient Caddo would have faced the same predicament from time to time. TARL archives.
Cleared bottomlands along the upper Cypress Creek within what is today Bob Sandlin Reservoir, Titus County, Texas. Photo by Dee Ann Story.
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