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Prehistoric Texas Main

The Varga Site exhibit was written by Mike Quigg and Paul Matchen of  TRC Environmental Corporation in Austin.  The work of a number of researchers also was drawn upon for the section, How Do We Know That? and these individuals are credited in the sources section below. TBH Editor Susan Dial created the exhibit, with web developers David Choi and Kathy Chung from the University of Texas at Austin Liberal Arts Instructional Technology Services and TBH web developer Heather Smith.  All images used in the exhibit, unless otherwise specified, are provided courtesy of TRC.

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) sponsored the archeological investigations by TRC Environmental Corporation. This exhibit is a public education outreach component of those investigations.

Mike Quigg has a long-held interest in Plains archeology, participating in his first dig as a high school senior in southern Colorado.  He pursued his interest first by obtaining a B.A. degree in anthropology from the University of Northern Colorado in Greeley, with summers spent conducting field work, then with a Masters in archeology from the University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.  He spent five years with the Archaeology Survey of Alberta, and another five years managing a private cultural resource firm.  He has spent his entire career working in the Plains, from central Alberta to southern Texas, and now has over 20 years experience in Texas. Quigg currently serves as senior staff archeologist for TRC Environmental Corporation.

Paul Matchen first became interested in archeology and cultural history while growing up in Mississippi.  After graduating from Auburn University with a B.A. degree in Anthropology (1995), he entered the graduate program at the University of Oklahoma at Norman.  In 2002, Matchen received his Master’s degree (Anthropology), with a focus on Late Prehistoric and Protohistoric groups of the Southern Plains/Panhandle.  He spent several years working as staff archeologist for the Archaeological Research Laboratory at the University of Tennessee- Knoxville. Matchen currently serves as staff archeologist for TRC Environmental Corporation.

Print Sources

Dering, P.
2008  Plant Remains from the Varga Site (41ED28).  In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp. 995-1018.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Frederick, C.D., M. D. Glascock, H. Neff, and C.M. Stevenson
1994 Evaluation of Chert Patination as a Dating Technique: A Case Study from Fort Hood, Texas. United States Army Fort Hood, Archeological Resource Management Series, Research Report 32. TRC Mariah Associates, Inc., Austin.

Glascock  M. D. and R. J. Speakman
2008 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Chert from the Varga Site (41ED28) in southwest Texas.  In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp. 885-950.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Mike Quigg
Mike Quigg
Mike Quigg
Paul Matchen
Mike Quigg
Cover of the Varga site report, Vol. 1.

Feathers, J.
2008 Optically Stimulated Luminescence of Alluvial Sediments from Edwards County, Texas. In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp. 1041-1054.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Harris, D.
2008 Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analyses. In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp. 985-994.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Kay, M.
2008 Use-Wear Analysis of Two Gravers from the Varga Site (41ED28). In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp.1059-1063.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Kennard, D. (editor)
1975 Devil’s Sinkhole Area:  Headwaters of the Nueces River, A Natural Survey Area, Part VIII of VIII.  Division of Natural Resources and Environment, The University of Texas at Austin.

Marmaduke, W. S., and H. Whitsett
1975 An Archaeological Reconnaissance in the Vicinity of the Devil’s Sinkhole.  In Devil’s Sinkhole Area—Headwaters of the Nueces River, A Natural Survey Area, Part VIII of VIII.  Division of Natural Resources and Environment, The University of Texas at Austin, pp. 88-117.

Hall, Steven A.
1981 Deteriorated pollen grains and the interpretation of Quaternary pollen diagrams.  Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 32:193-206.

Hardy, B. L.
2008  Results of Microscopic Use-Wear and Residue Analyses from the Varga Site 41ED28, Texas.  In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp.777-820.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Holloway, R.
2008 Pollen and Phytolith Analyses of Samples from the Varga Site, 41ED28, Edwards County, Texas.  In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp. 843-884.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Malainey, M. E. and K. L. Malisza
2008 Analysis of the Fatty Acid Compositions of Archaeological Pottery and Rock Residues from the Varga Site (41ED28).  In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp. 951-984.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Quigg, J. M., J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody
2008 The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas.TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110. Copies of this report are available (for a fee) through TxDOT.

Raisz, Edwin
1957 Landforms of the United States.

Robinson, D.
2008 Petrographic Analysis of Toyah Ceramics from the Varga Site, 41ED28, and Comparative Sites.  In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp. 823-842.  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.

Speakman, R. J. and M. D. Glascock
2008  Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Pottery from the Lorenzo Missions (41RE1), San Juan Mission (41BX5), and Varga Site (41ED28) in Real, Bexar and Edwards counties, Texas.  In The Varga Site:  A Multicomponent, Stratified Campsite in the Canyonlands of Edwards County, Texas by J. M. Quigg,  J. D. Owens, P. M. Matchen, R. A. Ricklis, G. D. Smith, C. D. Frederick, and M. C. Cody,  pp.1065-1084 .  TRC Technical Report 35319 and Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Archeological Studies Program Report No. 110.