University of Texas at Austin wordmarkCollege of Liberal Arts wordmark
Texas Beyond History
TBH Home

Credits & Sources

 

The Horn Shelter exhibit was written by Susan Dial and Albert Redder, based on Redder's work and that of Frank Watt,  Diane Young Holliday and others referenced below. Dial interviewed Redder on numerous occasions, examined the artifacts, and added new research findings and previously unpublished imagery to create this exhibit. Dee Ann Story served as reviewer for this online project, providing critical insights based on her previous synthesis of findings from the Horn Shelter site and others in the region. Ken Brown also served as a review editor for the exhibit, offering numerous suggestions informed by his research.

Heather Smith developed the exhibit for the web and created the artistic collages. Artist and archeologist Frank Weir painted the scene of the Paleoindian burial at Horn Shelter. LaVern Dutton and George Larson of the Bosque Museum in Clifton also helped make the exhibit possible, contributing photographs, information, and assistance. Photographs were also provided by Calvin Smith of the Western Heritage Museum, and the Mayborn Museum of Baylor University.

The exhibit was funded through donations from the William P. Clements Foundation, Dr. and Mrs. Warren Whitlow of Dallas, the Council of Texas Archeologists, Texas Archeological Society, Friends of TARL, and individual TBH supporters.

Research Credits

Albert Redder traces his interest in archeology to childhood, when his mother brought him an arrowhead from one of the fields on the family's Knox County ranch near Seymour, Texas. "After that, I was hooked," he recalls. Even while serving in the Army in France during World War II, Redder kept a watchful eye for artifacts while digging slit trenches or walking patrol. Returning to Waco, he joined the Texas Archeological Society in the early 1950s and began attending the organization's meetings and field schools. "I began to realize just how much information was being lost when artifacts and their provenience were not carefully documented." An active member of the Central Texas Archeological Society, he served as president, field coordinator, and an outreach speaker. In 1988, Redder was named a Fellow of the Texas Archeological Society (TAS), in recognition of his efforts in the field and, in particular, his decades of work at Horn Shelter.

Frank Watt  was a principal founder of the Central Texas Archeological Society in 1934. A prodigious avocational archeologist, researcher, and writer, Watt served as editor and publisher of the society's bulletin, Central Texas Archeologist, and contributed articles on his fieldwork and analyses in numerous other journals and publications. A member of the TAS since 1938, he served a a regional vice president and trustee, and was elected as Fellow of the organization in 1976. Following his death in 1981, a special issue of the CTA bulletin was written in his honor. This 1985 issue includes Redder's first article on Horn Shelter and tributes to Watt's work.

Diane Young Holliday first met Texas archeologists as an Earthwatch volunteer working with the Texas A & M field school at a Mimbres pueblo.  She followed the Aggies back to College Station and began a new life and career.  Under the direction of Dr. Gentry Steele, she analyzed the Horn Shelter human remains for her Master’s thesis and published aspects of the study in the Central Texas Archeologist, Current Research in the Pleistocene, and Plains Anthropologist

Dee Ann Story is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin and former Director of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory. She has been a content contributor and reviewer for numerous exhibits on TBH and is a longtime supporter. Her 1990 overview of native peoples of the Gulf Coastal Plain includes a synthesis of Horn Shelter, based on her discussions with Albert Redder and examination of some of the materials.

Ken Brown is a Research Fellow at the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory and he has worked in the field for nearly 40 years. Ken's Ph.D. dissertation on the Berger Bluff site provides unique insight into the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene climatic history of the coastal plains of Texas.

Print Sources

Anderson, David G. and Steven D. Smith
2003 Archaeology, History, and Predictive Modeling: Research at Fort Polk, 1972-2002. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Bischof, Robin E.
2011 Boxes and Boxes, Missing Context, and an Avocational Archaeologist: Making Sense of the Frank Watt Collection at the Mayborn Museum Complex. Department of Museum Studies Project, Baylor University. View online copy.

Blaine, Jay C., R. K. Harris, Wilson Crook, Jr., and Joel Shiner
1968 The Acton Site: Hood County, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 39:45-94.

Bordes, Francois
1972 A Tale of Two Caves. Harper and Row Publishers, New York.

Bousman, C. Britt
1998 Late Paleoindian Archeology. In Wilson-Leonard: An 11,000-year Archeological Record of Hunter Gatherers in Texas, Vol. I, pp. 161-210, assembled and edited by Michael B. Collins. Studies in Archeology 31, Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin; Archeoloogy Studies Program Report 10, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin.

Bousman, C. Britt, Michael B.Collins, Paul Goldberg, Thomas Stafford, Jan Guy, Barry W. Baker, D. Gentry Steele, Marvin Kay, Ann Kerr, Glen Fredlund, Phil Dering, Vance Holliday, Diane Wilson, Wulf Gose, Susan Dial, Paul Takac, Robin Balinsky, Marilyn Masson, and Joseph F. Powell
2002 The Palaeoindian-Archaic transition in North America: new evidence from Texas. Antiquity 76(2002): 980-90.

Bousmann, C. Britt, Barry W. Baker, and Anne C. Kerr
2004 Paleoindian Archeology in Texas. In The Prehistory of Texas, edited by Timothy K. Perttula, pp. 15-100. Texas A&M Press, College Station.

Breternitz, D. A., Swedlund, A. C., and Anderson, D. C.
1971 An Early Burial from Gordon Creek, Colorado. American Antiquity, 36:170-182.

Brown, Ken
2006 The Bench Deposits at Berger Bluff: Early Holocene-Late Pleistocene Depositional and Climatic History. Unpublished PhD dissertation (Anthropology), University of Texas at Austin.

Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, Cesare Emiliani, J. A. Holman, and J. J. Stipp
1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: A Unique Underwater Site. Science 203 (4381): 609-614.

Collins, Michael B. (editor)
1998 Wilson-Leonard: An 11,000-year Archeological Record of Hunter-Gatherers in Central Texas. Studies in Archeology 31, Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas, Austin and Archeology Studies Program, Report 10, Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Austin.

1999 Clovis Blade Technology: A Comparative Study of the Kevin Davis Cache, Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin.

2004 Archeology in Central Texas. In The Prehistory of Texas, edited by Timothy K. Perttula, pp. 101-126. Texas A&M Press, College Station.

Dial, Susan W., Anne C. Kerr, and Michael B. Collins
1998 Projectile Points. In Wilson-Leonard: An 11,000-year Archeological Record of Hunter-Gatherers in Central Texas, Volume II: Chipped Stone Artifacts, assembled and edited by Michael B. Collins, pp. 313-445. Studies in Archeology 31, Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas, Austin and Archeology Studies Program, Report 10, Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, Austin.

Duffield, Lathel F.
1963 The Wolfshead Site. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 34:83-141.

Ensor, H. Blaine.
1987 San Patrice and Dalton Affinities on the Central and Western Gulf Coastal Plain. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society. 57:69-81.

Forrester, R. E.
1985 Horn Shelter Number 2: The North End, A Preliminary Report. Central Texas Archeologist, Journal of the Central Texas Archeological Society 10:21-36.

1996 Horn Shelter Number 2; the North End, A Stratified Rockshelter in Bosque County Texas. Occasional Papers of the Strecker Museum No. 3. Baylor University.

Green, Thomas J., Bruce Cochran, Todd W. Fenton, James C. Woods, Gene L. Titmus, Larry Tieszen, Mary Anne Davis, and Susanne J. Miller
1998 The Buhl Burial: A Paleoindian Woman from Southern Idaho. American Antiquity 63(3):437-456.

 

photo of Albert Redder in front of Horn Shelter
Albert Redder in front of Horn Shelter. Photo by LaVern Dutton, courtesy of the Bosque Museum.
photo of Frank Watt
Frank Watt, taking notes. Photo by Albert Redder.
photo of physical Anthropologist Diane Young Holliday
Physical Anthropologist Diane Young Holliday. Photo by Vance T. Holliday.
photo of archeologist Dee Ann Story
Archeologist Dee Ann Story on tour in Greece. Photo by Anne Dibble.
photo of artist and archeologist Frank Weir
Artist and archeologist Frank Weir sketches Horn Shelter to use in an interpretive painting of the burial scene. Photo by Susan Dial.
Cover of the 1985 Central Texas Archeologist
Cover of the 1985 Central Texas Archeologist, the journal of the Central Texas Archeological Society, in which findings in the north and south end of Horn Shelter are reported.
Cover of the 1988 Central Texas Archeologist
Cover of the 1988 Central Texas Archeologist in which the Horn Shelter burial is reported, including osteological analysis of the human remains by Diane Young.

Hester, Thomas R.
1990 Plainview Artifacts at the St. Mary's Hall Site, South Central Texas. Current Research in the Pleistocene 7: 14-17.

Hester, Thomas R. and Sam W. Newcomb
1990 Projectile Points of the San Patrice Horizon on the Southern Plains of Texas. Current Research in the Pleistocene 7: 17-19.

Holliday, Vance T.
2000 The Evolution of Paleoindian Geochronology and Typology on the Great Plains. Geoarchaeology 15: 227-290.

Hughes, Jack, and Patrick S. Willey
1978 Archeology at Mackenzie Reservoir. Texas Historical Commission, Office of the State Archeological Survey Report 24.

Hurst, Stance, Brian J. Carter, and Nancy Beavan Athfield
2010 Investigations of a 10,214 Year Old Late Paleoindian Bison Kill at the Howard Gully Site in Southwestern Oklahoma. Plains Anthropologist 55 (213): 25-37.

Hurst, Stance, Jim Warnica, and Eileen Johnson
2009 San Patrice Projectile Points from the Hardwick Site, a Paleoindian Locality on the Southern High Plains of New Mexico. Current Research in the Pleistocene 26: 70-72.

Jenks, A. E.
1937 Minnesota’s Browns Valley Man and Associated Burial Artifacts. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, No. 49, American Anthropological Association, Menasha, Wisconsin.

Jennings, Thomas A.
2008 San Patrice: An Example of Late Paleoindian Adaptive Versatility in South-Central North America. American Antiquity 73 (3): 539-559.

Jodry, Margaret A. and Douglas W. Owsley
2014 A New Look at the Double Burial at Horn Shelter No. 2. In Kennewick Man: The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton pp. 549-604, edited by Douglas W. Owsley and Richard L. Jantz. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Johnson, LeRoy, Jr.
1989 Great Plains Interlopers in the Eastern Woodlands during Late Paleoindian Times. Office of the State Archeologist Report 36. Texas Historical Commission.

Kerr, Anne C. and Susan W. Dial
1998 Statistical Analysis of Unfluted Lanceolate and Early Bifurcate Stem Projectile Points. In Wilson-Leonard: An 11,000-year Archeological Record of Hunter Gatherers in Texas, Vol. II, pp. 447-507, assembled and edited by Michael B. Collins. Studies in Archeology 31, Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin; Archeoloogy Studies Program Report 10, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin.

Lewis, C.R.
2009 An 18,000 Year Old Occupation along Petronilla Creek in Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 80 (13-50).

Lopinot, Neal H. and Jack H. Ray
2010 Late Paleoindian Interaction and Exchange at the Big Eddy site in Southwest Missouri. In Exploring Variability in Early Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways, edited by Stance Hurst and Jack L. Hofman, pp. 119-134. The University of Kansas Publications in Anthropology 25.

Lopinot, Neal H., Jack H. Ray, and Michael D. Conner
1998 The 1997 Excavations at the Big Eddy Site. Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri.
2000 The 1999 Excavations at the Big Eddy Site. Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri.

Owsley, Douglas W., Margaret A. Jodry, Thomas W. Stafford, Jr., C. Vance Haynes, Jr., Richard L. Jantz, Dennis J. Stanford, James M. Warnica, Tsunehiko Hanihara, Joanne Dickenson, Laura Bergstresser, Ian G. Macintyre, M. Amelia Logan, and John L. Montgomery
2010 Arch Lake Woman. Physical Anthropology and Geoarchaeology. Texas A &M University Press, College Station.

Perttula, Tim (editor)
2004 The Prehistory of Texas. Texas A&M Press.

Powell, Joseph F., and D. Gentry Steele
1994 Diet and health of Paleoindians: an examination of early Holocene human dental remains. In Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans, edited by Kristin D. Sobolik, pp. 178-194. Occasional Paper No. 22. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

Prochnow, Shane J.
2001 Paleohydrology and Geoarchaeology of the South End of Horn Shelter Number 2 along the Brazos River, Central, Texas. Masters Thesis, Baylor University.

Ray, Jack H., Neal H. Lopinot, Edwin R. Hajic, and Rolfe D. Mandel
1998 The Big Eddy Site: A Multicomponent Paleoindian Site on the Ozark Border, Southwest Missouri. Plains Anthropologist 43(163): 73-82.

Redder, Albert
1985 Horn Shelter Number 2: The South End, A Preliminary Report. Central Texas Archeologist, Journal of the Central Texas Archeological Society 10: 37-65.

Redder, Albert, and John W. Fox
1988 Excavation and Positioning of the Horn Shelter’s Burial and Grave Goods. Central Texas Archeologist, Journal of the Central Texas Archeological Society 11: 1-12.

Smith, Bruce D.
1986 The Archeology of the Southeastern United States: From Dalton to de Soto, 10,500-500 B.P. In Advances in World Archaeology, edited by Fred Wendorf and Angela Close 5: 1-92.

Story, Dee Ann
1990 Cultural History of Native Americans. In The Archeology and Bioarcheology of the Gulf Coastal Plain by Dee Ann Story, Janice A. Guy, Barbara A. Burnett, Martha Doty Freeman, Jerome C. Rose, D. Gentry Steele, Ben W. Olive, and Karl J. Reinhard, Vol. 1:163-366. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series 38, Fayettville.

Turner, C. G.
1979 Three-rooted Mandibular First Molars and the Question of American Indian Origins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 34:229-242.

1983 Dental Evidence for the Peopling of the Americans. In: Early Man in the New World, edited by R. Shutler, pp. 147-157. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills.

Turner, C. G. and Bird, J.
1981 Dentition of Chilean Paleo-Indians and the Peopling of the Americas. Science, 212:1053—54

Turner, E. S., T. R. Hester, and R. McReynolds
2011 Stone Artifacts of Texas Indians. 3rd Edition. Taylor Trade Publishing, A Division of Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland.

Valastro, S., Jr., E. Mott Davis, and Alejandra G. Varela
1979 University of Texas at Austin Radiocarbon Dates XIII: Horn Shelter No. 2 series, Texas. Radiocarbon Vol. 21(2):262-264.

Walker, Sally M. and Douglas W. Owsley
2012 Their Skeletons Speak: Kennewick Man and the Paleoamerican World (Exceptional Social Studies Titles for Intermediate Grades). Carolrhoda Books, Minneapolis.

Watt, Frank H.
1978 Radiocarbon Chronology of Sites in the Central Brazos Valley. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 49:111-138.

Webb, C. H.
1946 Two Unusual Types of Chipped Stone Artifacts from Northwest Louisiana. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society 17 9-17.

Webb, Clarence H., Joel L. Shiner, and Wayne E. Roberts
1971 The John Pearce Site. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 42:1-49.

Young, Diane, Suzanne Patrick, and D. Gentry Steele
1987 An Analysis of the Paleoindian Double Burial from Horn Shelter No. 2 in Central Texas. Plains Anthropologist 32(117): 275-298.

Young, Diane
1988 An Osteological Analysis of the Paleoindian Double Burial from Horn Shelter, Number 2. Central Texas Archeologist, Journal of the Central Texas Archeological Society 11: 13-115.

Links

photo of George Larson, director of the Bosque Museum
George Larson, director of the Bosque Museum, stands next to the reconstructed bust of the Horn Shelter male. The museum commissioned the work by sculptor Amanda Danning. Photo by Susan Dial.
photo of Horn Shelter exhibit at the Bosque Museum
Horn Shelter exhibit at the Bosque Museum.
photo of LaVern Dutton, archeological consultant and curator at the museum
LaVern Dutton, archeological consultant and curator at the museum, shows the display highlighting the work of Frank Watt and Albert Redder at Horn Shelter. Photo by Susan Dial.

The Bosque Museum
The Bosque Museum, located in Clifton, Texas, features an exhibit focused on the Horn Shelter burial and the work of Albert Redder and Frank Watt. Displays include a reconstruction of the burial as well as a facsimile of the excavations. See website for museum visiting hours and information about tours and speakers.

The Mayborn Museum
Part of a museum complex on the grounds of Baylor University in Waco, the Mayborn Museum holds a variety of exhibits including a display on Horn Shelter and an interactive walk-through exhibit based on on the Waco Mammoth site.

Central Texas Archaeological Society
Founded in 1935, the society has been involved in numerous significant site discoveries and excavations across the region and publishes the journal, Central Texas Archeologist, which reports on many of these sites. The group meets monthly at the Mayborne Museum in Waco.

See also these Texas Beyond History web exhibits to learn more about other Texas Paleoindian sites: Kincaid Shelter, Wilson-Leonard Site, Gault Site, Pavo Real, McFaddin Beach.

Out of State Resources

The Big Eddy Site
More information on this early site in MIssouri provided by Center for Archaeological Research, Missouri State University.

Western Heritage Museum Complex
Museum complex and heritage center in Hobbs, New Mexico, holds educational exhibits spanning some 12,000 years of cultural history, and will house the Southeastern New Mexico Archaeological (Research/Resource) Center, with extensive research collections and library.