Frequently asked Questions Regarding the Caddo Indian Nation

Who is a Caddo?
A Caddo person is defined by the Constitution and By-laws of the Caddo Nation under Article III - TRIBAL MEMBERSHIP

Section 1. All persons of the Caddo Indian blood who received an allotment of land as members of the Caddo Indian Tribe are declared full blood (4/4) members of the tribe for the purpose of computing eligibility of their descendants for membership.

Section 2. All living lineal descendants of allottees eligible for membership under the provisions of Section 1 of this Article born on or before the date of adoption of this Constitution.

Section 3. (a) All persons of at least one-sixteenth (1/16) degree Caddo Indian Blood who are descendants of enrolled ancestors, as defined and derived from section 1, born after the date of the adoption of this constitution (June 26, 1976), except those persons otherwise entitled to enrollment with the Tribe who elect to be enrolled in another tribe.

Section 3. (b) Only for the purposes of enrollment under this section, all persons of at least one-sixteenth (1/16) Caddo Indian blood, who elect to be enrolled as a Caddo tribal member, shall be allowed to count all quanta of American Indian blood as Caddo Indian blood. Caddo tribal enrollment procedures, after the passage of the amendment, shall recognize and count all amounts of American Indian blood as pertinent to prospective tribal enrollees and to their descendants, except those persons otherwise entitled to enrollment under this constitutional amendment, who elect to be enrolled in another tribe.

Section 4. Those persons who are adopted into the tribe in accordance with rules prescribed by the Tribal Council, with approval of the membership, and consistent with United States Law.
Section 5. Those persons who were eligible for membership in the Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma under the previous constitution of January 17, 1938, as amended, who were recognized as members shall continue to be members without further test of eligibility until their deaths or voluntary relinquishment of membership, provided, however, that these persons shall submit an official enrollment application.

Section 6. Those persons who are eligible for enrollment under the preceding sections of this article who elect to be enrolled, except those persons who have received a share of land or money by virtue of having been listed on an approved membership roll of another tribe.

Four major constitutional amendments adopted in 2002 changed the organizational name to The Caddo Nation of Oklahoma; affected eligibility for membership, and altered terms of office for elected officials.

The 2002 amendments did not affect the core definition for membership in the Caddo Nation that requires a person to be of the Caddo Indian blood who received an allotment of land as a member of the Caddo Indian tribe, or a living lineal descendant of an allottee, born on or before the adoption of the 1976 constitution. Only the degree of Caddo Indian Blood was affected by the amendments.

Who governs the Caddo Nation?
The Constitution and By-Laws of the Caddo Nation provides a governing body composed of the Tribal Council: four officers elected at large (Tribal Chairman, Vice-chairman, Secretary, Treasurer) and four District Representatives elected by their districts (Binger, Anadarko, Fort Cobb, Oklahoma City). The Administration Building is located in the Caddo Tribal Complex, five miles east of Binger, Oklahoma and approximately 21 miles north of Anadarko at the intersection of highways 281 and 152.

The original constitution and bylaws of the Caddo Indian Tribe of Oklahoma was revised and ratified in 1976.

Constitutional Amendment in 2002 changed the period of terms in office for members of the Tribal Council from two years to four years, or until a successor is duly elected and installed in office.

How did the Caddo Nation receive Federal recognition?
Federal recognition was established in 1938. Criteria included historical and continued existence of a tribal government, land reserved in Indian Territory by Executive Order, and organization under a constitution and bylaws in conformance to the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936 (49 Stat. 1967.

What is Caddo Country?
Present Caddo country is defined by Caddo allotments contained in a three county area of southwestern Oklahoma. The General Allotment Act (Dawes Severalty Act) of 1887 provided for the granting of land holdings to individual Indians, replacing the communal tribal holdings. Every man, woman, and child under the Wichita-Caddo Agency was allotted 160 acres during 1901. The total amounted to 152,714 acres. The allotted land is held in trust by the United States.

"Surplus" land amounting to 586,468 acres was opened to white settlement on August 6, 1901.

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