Archeology in the Southwestern Homeland
Most of the Neches and Angelina river valleys were occupied in Woodland times by the Mossy Grove culture. By A.D. 800, Caddo groups appear to have moved into the upper and middle Sabine drainage (including the Neches and Angelina valleys) and probably displaced the Mossy Grove peoples (some of whom may have been assimilated into Caddo culture). Throughout the Caddo heyday there were numerous Caddo centers and smaller settlements in the southwestern Homeland.
During the early historic period, the area was the territory of the Hasinai-allied groups, while to the south were non-Caddo groups such as the Bidai, Atakapa, and Akokisas, who may represent the descendants of Mossy Grove culture. Because of the intensive archeological investigations of the George C. Davis site, the area's premier Early Caddo mound center, as well as the numerous late 17th and 18th century eyewitness accounts of Hasinai peoples, the southwestern part of the Caddo Homeland is perhaps its best known area.